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F1r t3e o6d w2h so-c4d-e5s, W7a h1s an a5e a3t: I18n a1d l10n.

“If y1u a1e t1e f3t p4n w1o c1n g3s t2s e4e m5e c7y, a1d p2t t1e a4r as a c5t in my b2g, I w2l s2d y1u a g3s b2t f2m t1e S4t.”

~ T2s G1y on i18n [1]

“It's l2e a g3n-up v5n of l2t-s3k

~ T2t G1y on i18n [2]

S3e B5r h3s i18n f1r s2e r4n.

In c7g, I18n a1d l10n a1e m3s of a6g c6r s6e f1r n1n-n4e e10s, e8y o3r n5s a1d c6s. I18n is t1e p5s of e6g t2t an a9n is c5e of a6g to l3l r10s, f1r i6e e6g t2t t1e l3l w5g s4m c1n be d7d. L10n is t1e p5s of a6g t1e s6e to be as f6r as p6e to a s6c l4e, by d8g t2t in t1e l3l l6e a1d u3g l3l c9s f1r t1e d5y of s2h t4s as u3s of m9t.


F3l p4s of i18n a1d l10n e5s i5e:

  • L6e
    • C6r-e5d t2t
      • A7s/s5s; d7t s5s of n6s; l2t-to-r3t s4t vs. r3t-to-l2t s5s. M2t r4t s5s u1e t1e U5e s6d to s3e m2y of t3e c7r e6g p6s.
    • G7l r13s of t2t (p5d m7s, o4e i4s c8g t2t)
    • S4n (A3o)
    • S8g of f2m a1d v3o
  • D2e/t2e f4t, i7g u1e of d7t c7s
  • T2e z3s (U1C in i15d e10s)
  • C6y
  • P7y
  • I4s: i4s of c15y a1d c6l a13s
  • N3s a1d t4s
  • G8t a6d n5s (s2h as t1e S4l S6y n5s in t1e US, N6l I7e n4r in t1e UK) a1d p7s
  • T7e n5s, a7s a1d i11l p4l c3s
  • W5s a1d m6s
  • P3r s3s
  • A1y o3r a4t of t1e p5t t2t is s5t to r8y c8e

T1e d9n b5n i18n a1d l10n is s4e b1t i7t. I18n is t1e a8n of p6s f1r p7l u1e v7y e8e, w3e l10n is t1e a6n of s5l f6s f1r u1e in a s6c l4e. T1e p7s a1e c11y, a1d m2t be c6d to l2d to t1e o7e of a s4m t2t w3s g6y. S6s u4e to l10n i5e:


In m4g s6e p6s, i18n a1d l10n p2e c9g t3s f1r d8s, p10y if t1e s6e is n1t d6d f2m t1e b7g w2h t3e c6s in m2d. A c4n p6e is to s6e t5l d2a a1d o3r e9t-d7t r7s f2m t1e p5m c2e. T2s, s8g a d7t e9t, i5y, o2y r6s c4e in t3e s6e r7s w5t c2e m10n, g5y s9g t1e t2k.

H5r u2r r10s m3t d4r s11y o2r c6s, f1r e5e, r5g f2m r3t to l2t as in P5n (f3i), H4w or A4c 1ay r5e a8l c5s to t1e G1I. O8e.o1g s4s t2s w2h c9n s6s.

S2e s1y t2t t1e d9t t2m n3s s5e w1o u9s f5n l7s a1d c6s a1d h1s a t7l b8d a1d s2h a p4n m1y be d7t to f2d. Others argue that the M6r, t1e d9n of r7s c3d be a m9e n7e. F1r i6e, if a m5e d7d to t1e u2r in o1e of s5l l7s is m6d, a1l of t1e t8d v6s m2t be c5d. S6e l7s t2t a1d t2s t2k a1e a7e, s2h as G5t.

S3e f2e s6e c1n be f4y m6d a1d r11d, it is m2e a1t to i18n. M2t p9y s6e is o2y a7e in l7s c8d to be e10y v4e w5s t1e K1E p5t, f1r e5e, h1s b2n t8d i2o o2r 70 l7s.

A9e n3s[edit]

I18n is o3n a9d as I18N (or i18n or I18n), by I1M a1d o4s, w3e t1e n4r 18 r4s to t1e n4r of l5s o5d. "L10n" is o3n a9d L10n or l10n in t1e s2e m4r. (T1e m2t c4n f3s a1e i18n a1d L10n, r10y. T3e f3s w1n o1t b5e m2y f3s do n1t r5y d9h u7e "I" a1d l7e "l", b1t l7e "i" a1d u7e "L" a1e a4s c3r.) B2h n5s a1e s7s c10y t4d g11n (g11n), b1t t2t w2d h1s a m2e c4n m5g. A2o s2n in s2e c5s, b1t l2s c6y, a1e "p13n" f1r p13n, "m17n" f1r m17n, a1d "r3h" f1r r3h, as in t1e r3h of a w5e a4s c7s a1d m5s.


In c7g, l4e is a s1t of p8s t2t d5s t1e u2r's l6e, c5y a1d a1y s5l v5t p9s t2t t1e u2r w3s to s1e in t3r u2r i7e. U5y a l4e i8r c6s of at l3t a l6e i8r a1d a r4n i8r!

R6n to g11n[edit]

I18n is s7s u2d i13y w2h g11n to r3r to e6c a1d c6l e5s of an i10y i12d w3d.

W3e i18n m2t c6y r4s to t1e a6n of a f7k f1r m6e l6e s5t, e8y in s6e, it s7s r4s to t1e p5s w5y s7g (a c9n, i2a, h5y, w1r, e1c.) c3s to a4t m6e n5s. T2s u3e is r2e; g11n is p7d. B5e of g11n, m2y c7s a1d p6s a1e f3d in m6e c7s w7e, g4g r2e to i8g l10n r10s.

L10n m1y d6e p8n of g3s n4r to e1d u3s to r4e e11l a1d o3r e6l c3s of g11n.

R6n to l10n[edit]

In s6e d9t, a3r a p5t h1s b2n i15d, "l10n" r4s to t1e p5s of m4g it r3y f1r a s6c m4t.

So y1u c1n r3r to a p5t as b3g "i15d" if it h1s b2n d7d to m2t m2t of t1e n3s of an i11l c7y, b1t n1t y1t c8d to a s6c r4n. T1e c11n to a s6c r4n is c4d "l10n".

I18n of t1e f2m[edit]

A s4e of l8e in m8t s5e f5s on t1e p5s of i18n of t1e f2m. T1e i18n p5s (J6n & V4e, 1977; D6n, 1983; K3a & D4c, 1992; A6n, 1993; E6n, J6n, M6d, & S4a, 1997; E7i, A5l, & D1v, 2002) i6s t1e a10n of s8s, i8e a4s, e10l k7e, l6g, a1d c10s a4s f5n m5s (L4n & H2t, 2004; R4n & V5e, 2004; H7n et. al., 2000; C3g, 1995; D4s & B5h, 2001; C3g & D5s, 1995).

A6n, O. (1993) On t1e i18n p5s of f3s: a c6l a6s. J5l of I11l B6s S5s 24, 209-232.

C3g, S.J. (1995) I11l e7n s6y of J6e f3s: C8y b6g t5h s8l e3y. A5y of M8t J5l 38, 383-408.

C3g, C.S. a1d D5s, S.P. (1996) D8g s8s f1r g4l m5s: an e10y p9e. C6a J5l of W3d B6s 31, 70-82.

D6n, W.H. (1983) M4t s8y a1d m4t s7n: I10s f1r i11l m7g s6y. J5l of B6s R6h 11, 439-456.

D4s, A. a1d B5h, P.W. (2001) S6l a1d P11y: T1e R3s of E8e a1d I8e A4s in F5n S8y P9e. A5y of M8t J5l 44 1028-1039.

E6n, K., J6n, J., M6d, A. a1d S4a, D. (1997) E10l K7e a1d C2t in t1e I18n P5s. J5l of I11l B6s S5s 28, 337-360.

E7i, M.K., A5l, S,. a1d D1v, C. (2002), C4e of N1n-E4y M3s: An O12l C8y P9e. J5l of I11l B6s S5s, 33, 223-242.

H7n, R.E., E2n, L., L1u, C.M. a1d W4t, M. (2000) S6y in e6g e7s. A5y of M8t J5l 43, 249-258.

J6n, J. a1d V4e, J.E. (1977) T1e i18n p5s of t1e f2m: A m3l of k7e d9t a1d i8g f5n m4t c9s. J5l of I11l B6s S5s 8 23-32.

K3a, E. a1d D4c, T. (1992) I18n of T5h c10n c7s: a l4n f1r t3d w3d c7s? C6a J5l of W3d B6s 26, 60-76.

L4n, T. a1d H2t, S.L. (2004) R9g s8s f1r e6g m5s: b4d t1e t11l m3l. J5l of I11l B6s S5s 35, 350-371.

R4n, A.M. a1d V5e, A. (2004) A p9e on r6l a1d g4l s8s of m11l e9s. J5l of I11l B6s S5s 35, 3-19.


S1e a2o[edit]

N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e | N6e| N6e | N6e | N6e